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    English Editing

    The goal of editing English is to produce a document that is written clearly and precisely in an elegant style and that contains no errors. The English should be as simple as possible and easy to understand. In order to achieve this goal, we undertake to do the following:

    • Correct grammar
    • Correct spelling
    • Correct punctuation
    • Ensure that the correct vocabulary is used
    • Ensure that an appropriate level of formality is used
    • Improve style
    Even if the English is improved as specified above, there may still be serious problems with the paper, because of unclarity of expression. In order to ensure that you communicate your ideas clearly to your readers, thereby enabling them to concentrate on the content of your paper, rather than on issues of interpretation, we also undertake to do the following:

    • Alert you to ambiguity in your text and tell you what the different possible ways of interpreting your text are, so that you can choose the formulation that conveys your intended meaning
    • Point out unwanted implications of the text that you have written and suggest ways of rewriting
    • Point out text the meaning of which is unclear and, where possible, inform you of what you need to do to remove the unclarity
    Please note that we cannot remove unclarity on our own. The very meaning of text's being unclear is that it is not possible to determine your intended meaning, and if we cannot do that, we cannot remove the unclarity. What we can do is tell you where the problem lies and, where possible, what you need to do to resolve the unclarity. In cases in which a paper contains unclarity, it is critical that you revise your text in response to our comments and suggestions, then return the paper to us for checking.

    We are aware that the needs of authors differ and that different papers will need different treatment to bring the English to a publishable standard. In order to meet your needs, we have three levels of editing. These levels reflect the kind of work that is required to produce a document that is free from error, clearly and unambiguously written, and easy to read.

    Standard editing
    In this case, one round of editing by one editor is sufficient to attend to all the issues mentioned above. We assume an editing speed of no less than 1000 words per hour for this service. The invoice will specify a fee for "first editing".

    Intensive editing
    In this case, two different editors will go through your paper carefully. This is because it helps a great deal to have a fresh eye when working on difficult text, to ensure that all errors are recognised and corrected. Second editing (quality control) is easier than first editing, so we assume that the second editor will work at a rate of no less than 2000 words per hour. The invoice will specify separate fees for "first editing" and "quality control". Intensive editing is required in many cases.

    Super-intensive editing

    In this case, your paper will need a great deal of work to bring the English to a publishable standard. Our editors will take as much time as is required in order to give you the quality of service that you require. The invoice will specify separate fees for "first editing", "quality control", and "surcharge for heavy/difficult editing". When editing papers in the social sciences, super-intensive editing is needed fairly often.

    At all three levels of editing, our goal is to bring the English in your paper to a publishable standard. The difference lies in the amount of editing that is required to meet your needs. For every paper that you submit, we will provide you with the level of editing that your paper warrants.

    We offer editing for both native and non-native speakers. We can use either International or North American spelling conventions, according to your preference.


    This service is provided after an author has revised a paper in response to the corrections, comments, and suggestions that we made while editing. Please note that it is always wise to return your paper to us for checking. We have found that authors often introduce errors when they are revising their manuscripts, with the result that sometimes, reviewers recommend that authors seek the assistance of a professional editing company! The need for checking becomes critical when the paper contains unclarity that we cannot resolve without further input from the author. Checking will incur a fee that is in accordance with the amount of effort involved, charged at £43.90 per hour, with a minimum fee of £25. Usually, the fee will increase in relation to the amount of unclarity that the original text contained.

    What we do not provide
    1. We do not edit any work that is to be submitted in full or partial fulfilment of the requirements for any degree. This is because in almost all cases, correcting the English in student work requires the elimination of unclarity , which is in contravention of university regulations, which state that theses should be clearly written and be the product of all the student's own work.
    2. We do not reduce word counts, except when that occurs during the normal course of editing as we attempt to express your content correctly, stylishly, and succinctly. If the word count is still too high following our normal attempts to express your content correctly, stylishly, and succinctly, the problem must be that there is too much content. If your paper contains too many words, even after we have edited and done our best to express your content succinctly, you must reduce the content in order to reduce the word count. We cannot decide what content to omit, because we did not do the research.

    N.B. Having your paper edited by us does not guarantee acceptance for publication. There are all sorts of reasons, unrelated to English, as to why your paper may not be accepted for publication. Here are just a few examples:
    • the content may not be sufficiently important
    • important information may be missing
    • your hypotheses or research questions may not have been stated sufficiently precisely, which will render all your results and discussion irrelevant
    • your analysis of the data may be faulty or insufficient
    • your results may not support your conclusions
    • you might have failed to specify chains of causation among your factors clearly
    • you might have confused logical and causal connections
    • the overall structure of your argument may not be suitable
    • changes in the direction of your argument may not have been signposted sufficiently clearly
    • important theses may not be sufficiently clearly marked in the text
    • you might not have explicated central concepts sufficiently clearly or precisely
    • units may be missing or specified imprecisely

    Our editing staff

    Editing for Business is committed to providing a quality service. We employ only highly qualified and experienced native English-speaking editors. All of our editors have the following:

    • a Ph.D. in a mainstream academic discipline
    • experience of writing specific kinds of document to a professional level
    • a proven track record of editing academic documents
    • experience of proofreading and editing documents with a wide range of content

    How to submit your document for editing

    Please submit your paper to us using our online form, in MS Word or .tex format. If you send us a .tex file, please also send a .pdf compilation. If you experience a problem with using the form, please send all the information and your documents by e-mail to, and try to submit your information using the online form later.

    Please submit your entire document, including figures and figure legends, even if you do not wish us to edit all sections. If you wish us to omit certain sections, please inform us upon submission and highlight those sections. If we do not receive the entire document, we will not edit your paper.

    How long does it take?

    The time taken to edit and deliver a document will be a matter for discussion between the client and Editing for Business. Long documents will, obviously, require more time than short ones. In addition, documents that are difficult to edit will take longer than documents that are not so difficult. In general, we will return a document of up to 8000 words within 10-14 days. We are aware that it does not take that amount of time to actually do the editing. However, the fact that our editors are themselves practising and publishing academics, which is an advantage for our clients, also has a disadvantage; the editors have their own schedules and it sometimes takes time to schedule editing.


    • Editing for Business's Manager will send your manuscript to an editor who possesses the required expertise.
    • The editor will make changes that include corrections, suggestions, and comments, then send a revised copy to Editing for Business. Then, if necessary, the manuscript will be sent to a second editor for quality control.
    • Editing for Business will calculate the fee and send a copy of the revised version of the document back to you by e-mail, together with an invoice and instructions for payment.
    • When you receive the revised version of your paper, you should go through it carefully to address all changes, suggestions, and comments. When you have finished your revision, you should return the paper to us for checking. This is *very important*. We have found that a large percentage of authors introduce error when revising their text, with the result that sometimes, reviewers recommend that authors seek the assistance of a professional editing company! This checking will incur a fee that is appropriate to the amount of work involved, charged at GBP43.90 per hour, with a minimum charge of GBP25.

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